Use smartmontools  . To install in Debian/Ubuntu:
apt install smartmontools
Using a USB external disk drive
External SATA disk drives use a USB to SATA bridge. smartmontools requires that the bridge supports the pass-through commands from the SAT (SCSI/ATA Translation) standard  .
This external disk drive includes a USB to SATA bridge with the following ID:
$ lsusb Bus 002 Device 002: ID 125f:a82a A-DATA Technology Co., Ltd. HV300
Similar IDs for A-DATA exist in the list of supported devices  . The USB bridge uses SCSI to ATA Translation, specify sat as the type:
$ smartctl -d sat --info /dev/sdx === START OF INFORMATION SECTION === Device Model: TOSHIBA MQ04ABF100 Serial Number: --------- LU WWN Device Id: 5 000039 afb192ae6 Firmware Version: JU003U User Capacity: 1,000,204,886,016 bytes [1.00 TB] Sector Sizes: 512 bytes logical, 4096 bytes physical Rotation Rate: 5400 rpm Form Factor: 2.5 inches Zoned Device: Device managed zones Device is: Not in smartctl database 7.3/5319 ATA Version is: ACS-3 T13/2161-D revision 5 SATA Version is: SATA 3.3, 3.0 Gb/s (current: 3.0 Gb/s) Local Time is: Sun Nov 19 18:05:07 2023 CST SMART support is: Available - device has SMART capability. SMART support is: Enabled